Achilles tendon is the largest tendon in the body. It is formed by the merging together of the upper calf muscles and inserts into the back of the heel bone. Its blood supply comes from the muscles
above and the bony attachment below. The blood supply is limited at the ?watershed? zone approximately 1 to 4 inches above the insertion into the heel bone. Paratendonitis and tendinosis develop in
the same area. Achilles tendinitis implies an inflammatory response, but this is very limited because there is little blood supply to the Achilles tendon. More appropriate descriptions are
inflammation of the surrounding sheath (paratenonitis), degeneration within the substance of the tendon (tendinosis) or a combination of the two.
Achilles tendinitis is caused by repetitive or intense strain on the Achilles tendon, the band of tissue that connects your calf muscles to your heel bone. This tendon is used when you walk, run,
jump or push up on your toes. The structure of the Achilles tendon weakens with age, which can make it more susceptible to injury - particularly in people who may participate in sports only on the
weekends or who have suddenly increased the intensity of their running programs.
Achilles tendonitis and tendinopathy present as pain in the Achilles tendon, usually several centimeters above where it inserts on the heel. In some patients, pain and tendon damage are primarily at
the insertion to the heel bone. There may be swelling and/or thickening of the tendon. Bending at the ankle, walking, jumping, and running are often painful with this condition.
To confirm the diagnosis and consider what might be causing the problem, it?s important to see your doctor or a physiotherapist. Methods used to make a diagnosis may include, medical history,
including your exercise habits and footwear, physical examination, especially examining for thickness and tenderness of the Achilles tendon, tests that may include an x-ray of the foot, ultrasound
and occasionally blood tests (to test for an inflammatory condition), and an MRI scan of the tendon.
In order to treat the symptoms, antiflogistics or other anti-inflammatory therapy are often used. However these forms of therapy usually cannot prevent the injury to live on. Nevertheless patients
will always have to be encouraged to execute less burdening activities, so that the burden on the tendon decreases as well. Complete immobilisation should however be avoided, since it can cause
atrophy. Passive rehabilitation, Mobilisations can be used for dorsiflexion limitation of the talocrural joint and varus- or valgus limitation of the subtalar joint. Deep cross frictions (15 min).
It?s effectiveness is not scientifically proven and gives limited results. Recently, the use of Extracorporal Shock Wave Therapy was proven. Besides that, the application of ice can cause a short
decrease in pain and in swelling. Even though cryotherapy 2, 5 was not studied very thoroughly, recent research has shown that for injuries of soft tissue, applications of ice through a wet towel for
ten minutes are the most effective measures. Active rehabilitation, An active exercise program mostly includes eccentric exercises. This can be explained by the fact that eccentric muscle training
will lengthen the muscle fibres, which stimulates the collagen production. This form of therapy appears successful for mid-portion tendinosis, but has less effect with insertion tendinopathy. The
sensation of pain sets the beginning burdening of the patient and the progression of the exercises.
Surgery for an Achilles tendon rupture can be done with a single large incision, which is called open surgery. Or it can be done with several small incisions. This is called percutaneous surgery. The
differences in age and activity levels of people who get surgery can make it hard to know if Achilles tendon surgery is effective. The success of your surgery can depend on, your surgeon's
experience. The type of surgery you have. How damaged the tendon is. How soon after rupture the surgery is done. How soon you start your rehab program after surgery. How well you follow your rehab
program. Talk to your surgeon about his or her surgical experience. Ask about his or her success rate with the technique that would best treat your condition.
Appropriately warm up and stretch before practice or competition. Allow time for adequate rest and recovery between practices and competition. Maintain appropriate conditioning, Ankle and leg
flexibility, Muscle strength and endurance, Cardiovascular fitness. Use proper technique. To help prevent recurrence, taping, protective strapping, or an adhesive bandage may be recommended for
several weeks after healing is complete.